The word Diamond, formed over time, comes from the Greek adamas (ἀδάμας), meaning indomitable. Later on the word formed in Latin, adamantem– ‘the hardest iron or steel’ or Diamond.
The Diamond is transparent and clear, though there are also colored varieties (Fancy Diamonds) which have lattice defects or contain impurities.
The Diamond belongs to the mineral class of elements and has the chemical formula C (carbon).
The Diamond is typically crafted in the Brilliant cut. As a result, the layman tends to use the words Diamond and Brilliant to mean the same thing.
A well-executed cut plays an essential role in the value of the Diamond. By far the ideal cut, the Brilliant cut results in a particularly high radiance, where the gem breaks and refracts the maximum possible light.
The value of gemstones depends on various factors such as purity, color, cut, and weight or carat weight (ct).
The Diamond is the most valuable gem ever, with a flawless copy costing between 18,260 to 21,010 $ per carat. Currently (September 2018) the price per carat is around 19,580 $.
Diamonds which have incisions, crystal defects or impurities sell for less. Generally speaking, the smaller the Diamond, the lower its price – a 2-carat Diamond costs significantly more per carat than a 0.3 ct. Diamond.
Inexpensive Diamonds are available “at only” 2,200 $ per carat – very inferior stones sell for about 770 $ /carat.
The most expensive Diamond in the world is currently The Constellation, which sold for 69,3 million US Dollars and weighs 813 carats, making it almost the size of a tennis ball!
Find out more about features of quality gemstones
The Diamond is a cubic, crystallized carbon modification. However, there are also hexagonal carbon modifications with a different crystal system:
There are also synthetic modifications:
- Fullerenes (not synthetic in exceptional cases)
Very special varieties of Diamond are:
- Carbonado (black Diamond, extremely rare)
- Ballas (fibrous texture and radiant)